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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| January-February  | Volume 23 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 15, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
An evaluation of acupressure on the Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Hugo (LI4) points on the pain severity and length of labor: A systematic review and meta-analysis study
Fatemeh Najafi, Molouk Jaafarpour, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Javaher Khajavikhan
January-February 2018, 23(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_184_15  PMID:29344038
Background: In this study, the effects of SP6 and LI4 acupressure on the pain severity and length of labor are examined. Materials and Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed on articles published in 2004–2015. The articles, published in the English and Farsi languages, related to the effects of acupressure on the SP6 and LI4 points on the length and pain severity of labor. Data were collected by searching medical databases, including PubMed, ISI, MagIran, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, SID, Irandoc, and EMBASE, for relevant material. Results: Women who received SP6 acupressure experienced less pain immediately after the intervention [−0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.77, −0.36] than women in the touch group and exhibited decrease in the length of labor (−0.99, 95% CI: −1.39, −0.39), the active phase (0.95, 95% CI: −1.30, −0.61), and the second stage of labor (−0.39, 95% CI: −0.74, −0.03). Women who received LI4 acupressure experienced less pain immediately after the intervention (−0.94, 95%, CI: −1.36, −0.53) than women in the touch group and exhibited shorter active phase (−0.91, 95%, CI: −1.18, −0.63) and second stage of labor (−0.55, 95%, CI: −0.95, −0.15) lengths. Conclusions: The use of SP6 and LI4 acupressure shows promise as a method for managing the length and pain severity of labor, but further study is required to establish its effectiveness along with other pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of telephone follow-up by nurses on self-care in children with diabetes
Zahra Samimi, Sedigeh Talakoub, Zohreh Ghazavi
January-February 2018, 23(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.220950  PMID:29344042
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease during childhood. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, self-care is necessary. Education alone is not effective in providing care. Misunderstanding by the patients regarding diabetes during the training programs render telephone follow-up after training essential. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with two groups (experimental and control) was conducted in two phases in 2014. The study population consisted of 70 children of 10–18 years of age with type I diabetes (35 patients in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). The participants were randomly selected from the patients referring to the Sedigheh Tahereh Diabetic Research and Treatment Center in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire on self-care and a glycosylated hemoglobin recording form. The experimental group received 12 weeks of telephone follow-up training by the center, whereas the control group received no follow-up. Results: The results showed that, after intervention, the total mean score of self-care in all aspects of diabetes care for children was significantly higher in the experimental group (p < 0.001). In addition, a statistically significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of mean glycosylated hemoglobin after the intervention (p = 0.030). Conclusions: It can be concluded that telephone follow-up by a nurse can improve total self-care and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type I diabetes.
  5 2,045 241
A comparative study of shift work effects and injuries among nurses working in rotating night and day shifts in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India
Anjana Verma, Jugal Kishore, Shobha Gusain
January-February 2018, 23(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_15_17  PMID:29344047
Background: Shift work can have an impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the healthcare worker, affecting patients as well as their own safety at the workplace. This study was conducted to compare the health outcomes and injuries, along with associated risk factors between the nurses working in rotating night shift (RNS) as compared to day shift (DS) only. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted from June to November 2016 in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. It involved 275 nurses working in RNS and 275 nurses from DS of various departments, selected through simple random sampling. Standard Shift Work Index Questionnaire (SSI) was used as the study instrument, with selected variables (according to objectives of the study). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, t-test, and multivariate regression. Results: Female nurses had more sleep disturbance, fatigue, and poor psychological health. Working on a contractual basis, RNS, and living outside the hospital campus were associated with higher odds of having needle stick injury (NSI).The nurses working in RNSs were found to have significantly lower mean scores in job satisfaction (p = 0.04), sleep (p < 0.001), and psychological well-being (p = 0.047) as compared to DS workers. Conclusions: Health outcomes among nurses working in RNSs call for the interventions, focused on various factors which can be modified to provide supportive and safer working environment.
  5 3,305 358
Experiences of fathers with inpatient premature neonates: Phenomenological interpretative analysis
Tahmineh Dadkhahtehrani, Narges Eskandari, Zohre Khalajinia, Hoda Ahmari-Tehran
January-February 2018, 23(1):71-78
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_21_17  PMID:29344051
Background: Birth and hospitalization of premature neonates create enormous challenges for the family with serious impacts on parents' mental and emotional health. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Materials and Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, data were collected using in-depth interviews guided with a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Totally seven interviews were conducted with six participants. Results: The mean age of the fathers was 32 (23–42) years, and all of the fathers lived with their wives. Experiences of the fathers were categorized into 13 subordinate and three superordinate themes: “abandonment and helplessness” (lack of financial support, lack of informational support, and indignation and distrust toward the hospital staffs); “anxiety and confusion” (family disruption, shock due to the premature birth of the neonate, uncertainty, the loss of wishes, feeling of guilt and blame, and occupational disruption); and “development and self-actualization” (emotional development, spiritual development, independence and self-efficacy, and responsibility). Conclusions: The present study showed that the fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in NICU encounter both positive (development and self-actualization) and negative experiences (lack of financial and informational supports, distrusting toward the hospital staffs, family disruption, and occupational disruption). Planning to manage adverse experiences can help fathers to cope with this situation.
  5 2,324 281
A structural equation model of self-care activities in diabetic elderly patients
Mousa Alavi, Razieh Molavi, Parvin Eslami
January-February 2018, 23(1):61-65
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_38_17  PMID:29344049
Background: Self-care is a valuable strategy to improve health and reduce events of hospitalization and the duration of hospital stay in elderly diabetic patients. This study aimed to examine the model of self-care behaviors in elderly diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 209 diabetic elderly patients who were admitted in three hospitals affiliated with the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit the participants. Depression, anxiety, stress, and perceived social support were considered as predicting exogenous variables and elderly patients' self-care activities were treated as endogenous variables. The data were collected by a four-part questionnaire consisting of demographic and health-related characteristics; 21-item depression anxiety stress scale, multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and Diabetes Self-care Activities scale. Structural equation modelling by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and Analysis of Moment Structures-7 (AMOS) software was applied for data analysis. Results: Mean (standard deviation) of depression, anxiety, stress, perceived social support, and self-care activities of participants were 14.29 (4.3), 13.62 (3.74), 16.83 (4.23), 57.33 (14.19), and 44.56 (13.77), respectively. The results showed that the overall model fitted the data (χ2/df = 3.8, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.52, incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.48, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.14). Three out of four variables (i.e., perceived social support, anxiety, and depression) significantly predicted adherence to self-care behaviors among diabetic elderly patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The perceived social support, anxiety, and depression were identified as key constructs which need to be taken into account and well managed by health care professionals to enhance adherence to self-care activities in diabetic elderly patients.
  4 2,197 254
The lived experiences of becoming first-line nurse managers: A phenomenological study
Joko Gunawan, Yupin Aungsuroch, Nazliansyah , Ade Sukarna
January-February 2018, 23(1):66-70
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_1_17  PMID:29344050
Background: Designated roles of first-line nurse managers (FLNMs) are very complex, this study aimed to develop a deeper understanding of their meaningful lived experiences. Materials and Methods: This study employed a phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews with FLNMs (n = 7) at the General Hospital of Belitung, Indonesia. The data analysis was thematic. Results: Four major themes were identified from the analysis of textual data: Feeling extraordinary, the inability to do, desire to leave the unit, and influenced by work motivation. The findings of this study revealed the positive and negative experiences of becoming FLNMs. The positive experiences were related to the feeling challenged and extraordinary to deal with many roles in management and leadership. The negative experiences included personal conflict related to the desire to leave the unit, and feeling unable to manage. However, the works of FLNMs were influenced by internal and external motivation. Conclusions: This study better informs nurse executives to develop competence and performance of FLNMs, and keep their motivation by revising performance appraisal system.
  4 2,184 248
Relationship between spiritual intelligence with happiness and fear of childbirth in iranian pregnant women
Sedigheh Abdollahpour, Ahmad Khosravi
January-February 2018, 23(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_39_16  PMID:29344046
Background: Spiritual intelligence is a person's ability to feel a connection to a higher power and a sacred entity. With regard to its relation with happiness, it can have an important effect on the mental health of pregnant women. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and happiness and fear of childbirth in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 245 low-risk pregnant women from June till September 2015. Using random cluster sampling method, the subjects were selected among the women who referred to health care centers in Shahroud (Northeast of Iran). After obtaining informed consent, the researchers evaluated the spiritual intelligence, happiness, and fear of childbirth. Data were analyzed using STATA12 and Chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance, and Strucrural Equation Model. Results: In this study, the spiritual intelligence mean (SD) score was 64.43(16.51). Comparison between mothers with and without fear of childbirth showed there was a significant difference between the spiritual intelligence score and happiness mean scores in these two groups. There is a negative correlation between spiritual intelligence and happiness with fear of childbirth (−0.73 and −0.69, respectively). Conclusions: Increased level of spiritual intelligence in pregnant women can lead to an increase in their happiness and reduce their fear of childbirth. The fear of childbirth can be prevented via trainings to pregnant women about the components of spiritual intelligence; moreover, training the techniques to achieve more happiness can help mothers to reduce their fear of childbirth and hence promote natural childbirth.
  4 2,054 261
Assessment of the midwifery students' clinical competency before internship program in the field based on the objective structured clinical examination
Narges Malakooti, Parvin Bahadoran, Soheyla Ehsanpoor
January-February 2018, 23(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_181_16  PMID:29344043
Background: One of the important goals of clinical education is to promote the level of students' clinical skills. About 50% of the midwifery education is focused on clinical education, which has a great importance in shaping the professional skills of the students. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of students in some practical skills, before internship program in the field, using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a single-stage, multivariate prospective design. Twenty-seven midwifery students from the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who were in their sixth semester were selected by convenience sampling during the second semester of 2015–2016 educational year. OSCE was executed at skill laboratories in 8 stations during one day, and researcher-made checklists were used; their content and face validity were approved and their reliability was confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97. Data analysis was performed by SPSS19. Results: Results showed that the level of students' skills at pelvic exam station was 39.97%, at bladder catheterization was 66.92%, at Leopold was 42.7%, at fetal ECG interpretation was 50.49%, at physical examination was 21.30%, at fetal resuscitation was 48.81%, at breast examination was 56.32%, and at answering the questions was 23.49%. Conclusions: Results show that students gained a score of less than 50% in most skills. Therefore, they are not efficiently skilled for these essential clinical skills. Nonetheless, these procedures need the minimum skills that are required from students after graduation and before entering the working environment in hospitals and health centers. Therefore, more attention should be paid to these skills while planning internship programs before students enter the field. Also, more attention is required while teachers teach these skills and students are supposed to regard their weaknesses in these skills.
  3 2,084 232
Health journalism: Health reporting status and challenges
Mahrokh Keshvari, Niko Yamani, Peyman Adibi, Hossein Shahnazi
January-February 2018, 23(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_158_16  PMID:29344040
Background: Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Materials and Methods: Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015–2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test–retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Results: Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Conclusions: Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
  3 2,328 259
Impact of nutrition education in improving dietary pattern during pregnancy based on pender's health promotion model: A randomized clinical trial
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, SeyedSaeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad
January-February 2018, 23(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_198_16  PMID:29344041
Background: Different types of nutrients in adequate amounts are required to meet the increased demands of the mother and the developing fetus. Therefore, we examined the impact of nutrition education on the number of food servings per day. Materials and Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited to a prospective, randomized clinical trial from May to September, 2016. At 6–10 weeks of gestation, the participants were randomly divided into the intervention (n = 96) or the control group (n = 96), and were followed-up until the end of pregnancy. Each woman in the experimental group met the study nutritionist at the time of enrollment and an individualized nutrition plan was developed. In addition, the nutrition education based on Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) was designed, including three 45–60 min training sessions in 6–10, 18, and 26 weeks of pregnancy. The participants' usual food intake using a three-day dietary record was assessed at 6–10 weeks and 34–36 weeks of gestation. Results: The mean scores of the perceived benefits, self-efficacy, activity-related affect, interpersonal influences (husband support), and commitment to action increased while the competing demand scores decreased in the interventional group compared with the control group. The mean standard deviation (SD) of food portions from grain [10.40 (1.96) versus 12.70 (1.93) in the control group], vegetable [3.88 (1.33) versus 2.96 (0.91)], fruit [4.02 (0.05) versus 3.95 (0.91)], dairy [2.33 (0.68) versus 2.11 (0.45)], and meat [3.17 (0.68) versus 2.96 (0.67)] were improved in the experimental group. Conclusions: Pender's HPM for nutrition education is effective based on the compliance of pregnant women to the dietary guideline and the food guide pyramid.
  3 3,660 506
Predicting nurses' Psychological safety based on the forgiveness skill
Abbas Rahmati, Maryam Poormirzaei
January-February 2018, 23(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_240_16  PMID:29344045
Background: Forgiveness, as an intentional denial of your right of anger and aversion from a harmful deed, is related to many psychological processes of human which results in more psychological safety for people. The present study aimed to predict the psychological safety of nurses through different dimensions of forgiveness skill. Materials and Methods: This correlational study was conducted on 170 nurses working in Kerman hospitals during 2016–2017 who were selected based on convenience random sampling. Edmondson psychological safety and Thompson Heartland forgiveness scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression model. Results: TThe results indicated that psychological safety has a significant relationship with self-forgiveness (p= 0.0001) and other-forgiveness (p= 0.04). Further, only self-forgiveness could significantly predict 0.07 of psychological safety variance (p= 0.003). Conclusions: Self-forgiveness skill can improve the nurses' psychological safety and reduce the harms caused by job pressures by reinforcing positive psychological factors. It is recommended to teach forgiveness skill through holding in-service classes to staff and study the relationship between psychological safety with other social life skills among nurses.
  2 1,964 191
The impact of normal saline on the incidence of exposure keratopathy in patients hospitalized in intensive care units
Zohreh Davoodabady, Korosh Rezaei, Reza Rezaei
January-February 2018, 23(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_187_16  PMID:29344048
Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS) on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS) and the other eye to control group (standard care). In each patient, one eye (control group) randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group) received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day) there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS) group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended.
  2 1,931 237
Ethical challenges of embryo donation in embryo donors and recipients
Mahboubeh Taebi, Reyhane Bahrami, Narges Bagheri-Lankarani, Mohsen Shahriari
January-February 2018, 23(1):36-39
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_162_16  PMID:29344044
Background: Embryo donation, as one of the novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART), has remained a controversial issue. This is due to this methods' need for individuals from outside the family circle. Their presence can cause many ethical issues and complicate the designing and planning of the embryo donation process. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the ethical challenges of embryo donation from the view point of embryo donors and recipients. Material and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 couples (96 embryo donators and 96 embryo recipients) referring to Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center and Royan Institute, Iran. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tool was the researcher-made Ethical Challenges Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results: Embryo donors and recipients expresses the most important ethical challenges of embryo donation in the principle of justice (70.20%) and respect for autonomy (42.57%), respectively. Conclusions: The four ethical principles are important in the view of embryo donors and recipients; however, they highlighted the importance of the principle of respect for autonomy considering the existing barriers in the services of infertility centers. Legislators and relevant authorities must take measures toward the development of guidelines for this treatment method in the framework of ethics principles and incorporate all four principles independently.
  - 1,979 212
The effect of auriculotherapy on the stress and the outcomes of assistant reproductive technologies in infertile women
Mozhgan Saffari, Zahra Khashavi, Mahboubeh Valiani
January-February 2018, 23(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_105_16  PMID:29344039
Background: Infertility means failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertile women may experience severe stress and depression. Numerous studies have indicated that auriculotherapy could reduce stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of auriculotherapy on the stress and the outcome assisted reproductive technology in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial that was conducted on 56 infertile women aged 20–45, who were assigned into two groups of intervention and control, from November 2014 to November 2015. The control group only received the routine treatments, while the intervention group, in addition to their routine treatment, received auriculotherapy for 8–10 sessions during menstrual cycle. Both groups completed Newton's Fertility Problem Inventory in three stages. The datasets collected for the study were analyzed using independent t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Chi-square test. Results: The mean score of stress in the intervention group decreased significantly, compared to the control group prior to the embryo transfer and pregnancy test stages. Although insignificant, the rate of pregnancy in the intervention group was higher than the control group. There was a significant increase in the rate of clinical pregnancy in the intervention group, compared to the control. Conclusions: The results indicated that auriculotherapy might be effective in reducing stress and improving the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment.
  - 2,237 269