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Effect of dates in late pregnancy on the duration of labor in nulliparous women
Masoumeh Kordi, Fatemeh Aghaei Meybodi, Fatemeh Tara, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Mohsen Nemati, Mohammadtaghi Shakeri
September-October 2017, 22(5):383-387
DOI:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_213_15  PMID:29033994
Background: Long-term delivery is an important significant issue which is associated with mortality and fetal and maternal disorders. Based on the previous studies, consumption of dates affects uterine contractions and duration of delivery processes. This study aimed to study the effect of date consumption in late pregnancy on the duration of delivery processes in nulliparous women in 2013. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 182 nulliparous women 18–35 years who presented to OmAlBanin Hospital in Mashhad in 2013. The comparison has been made between 91 pregnant women who consumed 70–76 g dates daily from the 37th week of pregnancy and 91 pregnant women who did not consume dates. Data collection tool was a questionnaire and a checklist of daily dates' intake. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and statistical tests – chi-square and Mann–Whitney test, and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The average length of active phase (P = 0.0001), length of second phase (P = 0.0001), and third phase (P = 0.004) in two groups had statistically significant difference. The average length of the second phase (P = 0.03) and the third phase (P = 0.02) in case of spontaneous start of delivery in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group. Use of oxytocin to accelerate delivery had a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, consuming dates in late pregnancy was effective in decreasing length of labor processes and reduced the need of oxytocin for labor acceleration. Thus, it is recommended to consume dates in women without contraindications.
  4,402 116 -
Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period
Maryam Kianpour, Akram Mansouri, Tayebeh Mehrabi, Gholamreza Asghari
March-April 2016, 21(2):197-201
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.178248  PMID:27095995
Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth.
  3,343 680 7
Challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process: A systematic review
Vahid Zamanzadeh, Leila Valizadeh, Faranak Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi, Mojghan Behshid, Mojghan Lotfi
July-August 2015, 20(4):411-419
Background: Nursing process is a scientific approach in the provision of qualified nursing cares. However, in practice, the implementation of this process is faced with numerous challenges. With the knowledge of the challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process, the nursing processes can be developed appropriately. Due to the lack of comprehensive information on this subject, the current study was carried out to assess the key challenges associated with the implementation of the nursing process. Materials and Methods: To achieve and review related studies on this field, databases of Iran medix, SID, Magiran, PUBMED, Google scholar, and Proquest were assessed using the main keywords of nursing process and nursing process systematic review. The articles were retrieved in three steps including searching by keywords, review of the proceedings based on inclusion criteria, and final retrieval and assessment of available full texts. Results: Systematic assessment of the articles showed different challenges in implementation of the nursing process. Intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process, different views of the process, lack of knowledge and awareness among nurses related to the execution of process, supports of managing systems, and problems related to recording the nursing process were the main challenges that were extracted from review of literature. Conclusions: On systematically reviewing the literature, intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process has been identified as the main challenge in nursing process. To achieve the best strategy to minimize the challenge, in addition to preparing facilitators for implementation of nursing process, intangible understanding of the concept of nursing process, different views of the process, and forming teams of experts in nursing education are recommended for internalizing the nursing process among nurses.
  3,368 488 -
Nurses' human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review
Akram Parandeh, Morteza Khaghanizade, Eesa Mohammadi, Jamileh Mokhtari-Nouri
January-February 2016, 21(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.174750  PMID:26985216
Background: Human dignity, as a fundamental human right and a moral obligation, has been emphasized in different fields of nursing. The aim of the present integrative review was to explore the nature of nurses' human dignity in educational and clinical settings. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted on quantitative and qualitative research papers in English and Persian using the PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, SID, and Irandoc databases from the year 2000 to 2013. Keywords for the search included dignity, nursing, faculty, nurse clinicians, nursing student, and humanism. In total, 12 research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. Results: From this review, four key themes emerged. The themes consisted of concept of human dignity (it was as an expression of the professional value in nursing settings), factors affecting human dignity (including respect, communication, autonomy and power, competency and ability, structure of the workplace, and value-based education), dimensions of human dignity (including intrinsic and professional domains), and consequences of human dignity [positive (individual and professional growth and caring professional behavior) and negative (loss of motivation, intention to leave the profession, and non-professional image of nursing in the minds of people)]. Conclusions: The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses' dignity. Recognizing nurses' dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace.
  2,830 352 2
Application of the health belief model and social cognitive theory for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in a sample of Iranian women
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Alireza Hidarnia, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Alireza Askari
March-April 2016, 21(2):131-141
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.178231  PMID:27095985
Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health belief model (HBM) and social cognitive theory (SCT) for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients who were women and registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected. A questionnaire consisting of HBM constructs and the constructs of self-regulation and social support from SCT was used to measure nutrition performance. Bone mineral density was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur. The intervention for the experimental group included 10 educational sessions of 55-60 min of speech, group discussion, questions and answers, as well as posters and educational pamphlets, film screenings, and PowerPoint displays. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 via Chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. Results: After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the HBM constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition performance, compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score increased to 0.127 in the experimental group, while it reduced to −0.043 in the control group. The value of the hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 in the intervention group, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of HBM and constructs of self-regulation and social support on adoption of nutrition behaviors and increase in the bone density to prevent osteoporosis.
  2,678 338 1
Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper
Hamidreza Khankeh, Maryam Ranjbar, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Ali Zargham-Boroujeni, Eva Johansson
November-December 2015, 20(6):635-641
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.170010  PMID:26793245
Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others.
  2,542 461 8
Resources–tasks imbalance: Experiences of nurses from factors influencing workload to increase
Mojgan Khademi, Easa Mohammadi, Zohreh Vanaki
July-August 2015, 20(4):476-483
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.160994  PMID:26257804
Background: While nursing workload is a worldwide challenge, less attention has been given to the determining factors. Understanding these factors is important and could help nursing managers to provide suitable working environment and to manage the adverse outcomes of nursing workload. The aim of this study was to discover nurses’ experiences of determinant factors of their workload. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the participants included 15 nurses working in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The data were collected through 26 unstructured interviews and were analyzed using conventional content analysis. The rigor has been guaranteed with prolonged engagement, maximum variance sampling, member check, and audit trail. Results: Resource–task imbalance was the main theme of nurses’ experiences. It means that there was an imbalance between necessary elements to meet patients’ needs in comparison with expectation and responsibility. Resource–task imbalance included lack of resource, assignment without preparation, assigning non-care tasks, and patients’ and families’ needs/expectations. Conclusions: A deep and comprehensive imbalance between recourses and tasks and expectations has been perceived by the participants to be the main source of work overload. Paying more attention to resource allocation, education of quality workforce, and job description by managers is necessary.
  2,754 242 2
The effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose (Rosa damascena) essence on the pain intensity after dressing in patients with burns: A clinical randomized trial
Ali Bikmoradi, Mehdi Harorani, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Shirin Moradkhani, Golam Hossein Falahinia
May-June 2016, 21(3):247-254
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.180380  PMID:27186201
Background: Pain is one of the common problems encountered by patients with burns, which increases after each dressing. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose essence on the pain of patients with burns that is caused after dressing. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with second- and third-degree burn wounds. The baseline pain of the patients was assessed 30 min before they entered into the dressing room on the first and second days of intervention. The patients in the experimental group inhaled five drops of damask rose essence 40% in distilled water, while those in the control group inhaled five drops of distilled water as placebo. The pain intensity was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale at 15 and 30 min after the patients exited from the dressing room. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18) using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There was significant difference between the mean of pain intensity before and after intervention at 15 and 30 min after dressing (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was significant difference in reduction of pain intensity before and after aromatherapy in the experimental group (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant reduction in severity of pain after dressing in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose could be effective for relieving the pain caused after dressing in patients with burns. Therefore, it could be suggested as a complementary therapy in burn patients for pain relief.
  2,437 496 7
Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial
Fidan Shabani, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, Roghiyeh Karimi, Khadijeh Zarei, Mohammad Chehrazi
July-August 2016, 21(4):391-396
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.185581  PMID:27563323
Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, "Transitions" music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants' facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep-wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants' facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling.
  2,411 386 4
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction among nursing students in southwest Nigeria
Adekunbi A Farotimi, Chinomso Ugochukwu Nwozichi, Tolulope D Ojediran
November-December 2015, 20(6):705-711
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.170011  PMID:26793257
Background: One of the reported obstacles to the achievement of universal access to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention, treatment, care, and support programs includes stigma and discrimination from health workers, particularly nurses. Since nursing students would become future practising nurses and are most likely exposed to caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PL WHA) during their training, it is of great importance to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses toward the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used. A total of 150 nursing students were selected using the simple random sampling technique of fish bowl method with replacement. Data were obtained using a self-administered (33-item) validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses with regard to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction strategies. Reliability of the tool was tested using Cronbach alpha (R) yielding a reliability value of 0.72. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Results: Majority (76.0%) of the respondents were females and 82.7% were married. Respondents were found to have high knowledge (94.0%) of strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Also, 64% had moderate discriminatory attitude, 74% engaged in low discriminatory practice, while 26% engaged in high discriminatory practice. Conclusions: Student nurses had adequate knowledge about strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination; negative discriminatory attitude toward PLWHA and some form of discriminatory practices exist in participants' training schools. It is, therefore, recommended that an educational package on reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination be developed and implemented for the participants.
  2,361 368 2
Comparative study on the influence of three delivery positions on pain intensity during the second stage of labor
Mahboubeh Valiani, Mehri Rezaie, Zahra Shahshahan
July-August 2016, 21(4):372-378
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.185578  PMID:27563320
Background: Labor is a physiologic process, and consideration of labor pain and relieving that is among the major components of maternal care. Application of some labor position can lay the fetus better in pelvic canal direction. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of laying the mother in three labor positions on the pain severity in the second, third, and fourth stages of labor. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial conducted on 96 primiparous pregnant women randomly selected through convenient sampling from those who were hospitalized in the hospitals of Isfahan and Jahrom. Women with a gestational age of 37-42 weeks, singleton pregnancy, who had passed the first labor stage through physiologic process, and with cephalic presentation were selected. The subjects were randomly allocated to be in the groups of lithotomy, sitting, and squatting positions. Pain severity in the second, third, and fourth labor stages was measured with visual analog scale (VAS) as well as McGill present pain intensity (PPI). The data were collected through interviews and observations with the help of VAS. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Results: In the latent phase of the second labor stage, mean pain severity in lithotomy (2.27) and squatting positions (2.48) was significantly less than the mean pain severity in sitting (5.33) position (P = 0.001). Pain severity in the active phase of the second and third labor stages was significantly less in squatting position (6.14) group compared to the other two groups (7.59 and 7.41 in sitting and lithotomy positions, respectively) (P = 0.024). Pain severity in the fourth labor stage showed no significant difference in all three groups. Conclusions: Application of various labor positions as one of the non-medicational methods to reduce pain in the second and third stages of labor leads to labor pain reduction.
  2,348 365 3
The effect of massage therapy on occupational stress of Intensive Care Unit nurses
Fateme Nazari, Mojtaba Mirzamohamadi, Hojatollah Yousefi
July-August 2015, 20(4):508-515
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.161001  PMID:26257809
Background: One of the main causes of stress in the lives of people is their jobs. Occupational stress is causing a wide range of significant issues in health and community services. Nursing is the most stressful profession in the health services. Massage therapy is one way of coping with stress. This study was conducted to determine the effect of massage therapy on stress in nurses. Materials and Methods: This study was a clinical trial on 66 male and female nurses working in intensive care units (dialysis, ICU, and CCU) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Participants were selected according to the aims and inclusion criteria of the study. Then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) (Osipow and Spokane, 1987) was completed by participants of the two groups before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the intervention. General Swedish massage was performed on participants of the experimental group for 25 min in each session, twice a week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics [Chi-square, t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)] using SPSS software. Results: Results showed that the difference in overall mean occupation stress scores between experimental and control groups 2 weeks after the intervention was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, it is recommended that massage, as a valuable noninvasive method, be used for nurses in intensive care units to reduce their stress, promote mental health, and prevent the decrease in quality of nursing work life.
  2,371 329 4
Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery
SeyedAbedin Hosseini, Alemeh Heydari, MohammadAli Vakili, Shahram Moghadam, SadeghAli Tazyky
July-August 2016, 21(4):397-401
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.185582  PMID:27563324
Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients' vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Conclusions: Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings.
  2,326 373 3
Comparing the effects of two Swedish massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women
Farzaneh Gholami-Motlagh, Mina Jouzi, Bahram Soleymani
July-August 2016, 21(4):402-409
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.185584  PMID:27563325
Background: Anxiety is an inseparable part of our lives and a serious threat to health. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain strategies to prevent disorders caused by anxiety and adjust the vital signs of people. Swedish massage is one of the most recognized techniques for reducing anxiety. This study aims to compare the effects of two massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with a two-group, crossover design was conducted on 20 healthy women who were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to BNC (Back, Neck, and Chest) or LAF (Leg, Arm, and Face) groups. Massage therapy was carried out for a 14-week period (two 4-week massage therapy sessions and 6 weeks washout stage). Gathered data were analyzed using paired t-test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Both BNC and LAF methods caused a significant decrease in systolic BP in the first stage (P = 0.02, 0.00); however, diastolic BP showed significant decrease only in BNC group (P = 0.01). The mean average of body temperature of LAF group showed a significant decrease in the first stage (P = 0.0.3), and pulse and respiratory rate showed significant decrease in both groups during the second stage (P = 0.00). In addition, anxiety scores showed no significant difference before and after massage therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage therapy caused a decrease in systolic BP, pulse, and respiratory rate. It can be concluded that massage therapy was useful for decreasing the vital signs associated with anxiety in healthy women.
  2,367 270 3
An integrative review of literature on determinants of nurses' organizational commitment
Seyyed Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin
March-April 2016, 21(2):107-117
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.178224  PMID:27095982
Background: This integrative review was aimed to examine in literature and integrate the determinants of nurses' organizational commitment in hospital settings. Materials and Methods: In this study, an integrative review of the literature was used. The search strategy began with six electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL and Medline). Considering the inclusion criteria, published studies that examined the factors influencing nurses' organizational commitment in the timeframe of 2000 through 2013 were chosen. Data extraction and analysis were completed on all included studies. The final sample for this integrative review comprised 33 studies. Results: Based on common meanings and central issues, 63 different factors contributing to nurses' organizational commitment were integrated and grouped into four main categories: Personal characteristics and traits of nurses, leadership and management style and behavior, perception of organizational context, and characteristics of job and work environment. Conclusions: In general, categories emerged in this study could be useful for formulating initiatives to stimulate nurses' OC. However, little is known about the relative significance of each identified factor among nurses working in different countries. Qualitative research is recommended for narrowing this gap. Future research should be directed to examine the psychometric properties of the organizational scales for nurses in different cultures.
  2,299 273 10
Association between playing computer games and mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014
Mehrnoosh Mohammadi, Abdollah RezaeiDehaghani, Tayebeh Mehrabi, Ali RezaeiDehaghani
March-April 2016, 21(2):153-158
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.178236  PMID:27095988
Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results: Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = −0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = −0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings showed that adolescents' mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games.
  2,365 165 2
The effect of saline lock on phlebitis rates of patients in cardiac care units
Maryam Eghbali-Babadi, Raziyeh Ghadiriyan, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini
July-August 2015, 20(4):496-501
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.161006  PMID:26257807
Background: Despite advances in the field of intravenous therapy, phlebitis is still a common complication of peripheral venous catheter and finding an appropriate solution to prevent and reduce the incidence of this complication remains challenging. One of the methods used in reducing the incidence of phlebitis is the use of saline lock, which is forgotten in most hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate its impact on the incidence and severity of phlebitis. Materials and Methods: In a single-blind (the researcher) clinical trial, 88 patients with peripheral venous catheter admitted in cardiac care units in selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected through convenient sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control groups using random number table. The intervention group received 3 ml of 0.9% normal saline sterilized before and after each intravenous drug or every 12 h. However, in the control group, the intravenous drugs were given as routine and saline lock was not used. The evaluation of intravenous catheter regarding the incidence of phlebitis and its degrees using Jackson’s Visual Infusion Phlebitis Scale was performed 6 times within 72 h (every 12 h). Results were evaluated by SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the degree of phlebitis (P = 0.003). The percentage of phlebitis incidence in the control group was 88.6% and in the intervention group was 43.2%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The risk of incidence of phlebitis in the group without saline lock (control), compared to the intervention group, was 10.3 times greater (CI = 95%). The incidence of phlebitis in both groups increased with increase in the duration of catheter placement. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the use of saline lock in the intervention group compared to the control group, in which saline lock was not used, can have a significant impact on reducing the incidence of phlebitis and its degree.
  2,238 287 2
The effect of aromatherapy by essential oil of orange on anxiety during labor: A randomized clinical trial
Fahimeh Rashidi-Fakari, Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr, Hamed Mortazavi
November-December 2015, 20(6):661-664
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.170001  PMID:26793249
Background: Labor is a stressful situation that may have an adverse impact. Aromatherapy is a method to control anxiety and stress of women. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using essential oil of orange on women's anxiety during labor. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 100 women during labor were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention group and control group. The women in the intervention group were exposed to orange essential oil, but the women in the control group were exposed to distilled water. The women's anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger inventory. Moreover, physiological parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates were assessed in all the women before and 20 min after the intervention. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Wilcoxon, paired t-test, and Mann–Whitney U test. Data were evaluated with the SPSS 16 program. The significance level of P < 0.05 was considered. Results: The level of anxiety of women in both intervention (P = 0.03) and control (P = 0.003) groups reduced after the intervention. However, the reduction was more in the intervention group (difference in anxiety scores after the intervention in comparison to before intervention = −3.08) in comparison to the control group (score = −1.14). No significant change was found in the physiological parameters of women in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusions: Aromatherapy is a noninvasive and effective method to help women overcome their anxiety during labor. Orange scent can be useful in childbirth units to help women who are experiencing stress in labor.
  1,981 491 6
Effects of stress management program on the quality of nursing care and intensive care unit nurses
Saied Pahlavanzadeh, Zohreh Asgari, Nasrollah Alimohammadi
May-June 2016, 21(3):213-218
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.180376  PMID:27186196
Background: High level of stress in intensive care unit nurses affects the quality of their nursing care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a stress management program on the quality of nursing care of intensive care unit nurses. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial that was conducted on 65 nurses. The samples were selected by stratified sampling of the nurses working in intensive care units 1, 2, 3 in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran and were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group underwent an intervention, including 10 sessions of stress management that was held twice a week. In the control group, placebo sessions were held simultaneously. Data were gathered by demographic checklist and Quality Patient Care Scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in both groups. Then, the data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS software version 18. Results: Mean scores of overall and dimensions of quality of care in the intervention group were significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to pre-intervention (P < 0.001). The results showed that the quality of care in the intervention group was significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: As stress management is an effective method to improve the quality of care, the staffs are recommended to consider it in improvement of the quality of nursing care.
  2,119 324 1
Physical violence against health care workers: A nationwide study from Iran
Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab, Fatemeh Oskouie, Fereshteh Najafi, Nahid Ghazanfari, Zahra Tamizi, Shahla Afshani
May-June 2016, 21(3):232-238
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.180387  PMID:27186199
Background: Workplace violence is a serious and problematic phenomenon in health care settings. Research shows that health care workers are at the highest risk of such violence. The aim of this study was to address the frequency of physical violence against Iranian health personnel, their response to such violence, as well as the contributing factors to physical violence. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011, in which 6500 out of 57,000 health personnel working in some teaching hospitals were selected using multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire of “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector” developed by the International Labor Organization, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International. Results: The findings revealed that 23.5% of the participants were exposed to physical violence in the 12 months prior to the study. Nurses were the main victims of physical violence (78%) and patients' families were the main perpetrators of violence (56%). The most common reaction of victims to physical violence was asking the aggressor to stop violence (45%). Lack of people's knowledge of employees' tasks was the most common contributing factor to physical violence (49.2%). Conclusions: Based on the results, legislating appropriate laws in order to prevent and control violence in the workplace is necessary. Moreover, developing educational programs to manage the incidence of physical violence should be on health centers' agenda.
  2,124 315 7
The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients
Maryam Bakhshandeh Bavarsad, Abdolali Shariati, Esmaeil Eidani, Mahmud Latifi
September-October 2015, 20(5):613-618
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.164588  PMID:26457101
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P < 0.001) and statistically significant decrease in dyspnea from 3.76 ± 0.64 to 1.13 ± 0.36 (P = 0.0001) in the training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Conclusions: Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.
  1,941 377 4
The practice of intensive care nurses using the closed suctioning system: An observational study
Somayeh Haghighat, AhmadReza Yazdannik
September-October 2015, 20(5):619-625
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.164509  PMID:26457102
Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is an essential procedure performed for mechanically ventilated patients. ETS can be either performed by open or closed suctioning system (CSS). There may be some concern on how closed-system ETS is practiced by intensive care nurses. This study was designed to investigate closed-system ETS practices of critical care nurses and to compare their practice with standard recommendations. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted during August and December 2012 to establish how critical care nurses (N = 40) perform different steps in a typical ETS practice and to compare it with the current best practice recommendations through a 23-item structured checklist. The results were categorized into three sections: Pre-suctioning, suctioning, and post-suctioning practices. Results: Pre-suctioning, suctioning, and post-suctioning practices mean scores were 7.5, 11.75, and 8.5, respectively, out of 16, 16, and 12, respectively. The total suctioning practice score was 27.75 out of 44. Most discrepancies were observed in the patients' assessment and preparation, infection control practices, and use of an appropriate catheter. Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant statistical positive correlation between suctioning education period and suctioning practice score (P < 0.0001) and between working experience and suctioning practice score (P = 0.02). Conclusions: The findings revealed that critical care nurses do not fully adhere to the best practice recommendation in CSS. We recommend that standard guidelines on ETS practice be included in the current education of critical care nurses.
  1,967 300 2
Barriers and facilitators of nursing research utilization in Iran: A systematic review
Mahnaz Sanjari, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Maryam Aalaa, Neda Mehrdad
September-October 2015, 20(5):529-539
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.164501  PMID:26457088
Background: According to professionalization in nursing profession, the nursing researches expanded dramatically and rapidly in a very short period. Research results showed improvement in quality of provided care by using research findings. But there is still a gap between nursing research and practice, which led scientists to explore the barriers and facilitators of research utilization that could affect the application of research results. The aim of this review was to appraise and synthesize evidences of studies about the facilitators and barriers to research utilization in Iranian nurses. Material and Methods: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies about the barriers and facilitators of nursing research utilization in Iran was undertaken. Results: The results showed that items such as "The nurse is isolated from knowledgeable colleagues with whom to discuss the research," "There is insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas," "The nurse does not have time to read research," "The nurse does not feel she/he has enough authority to change patient care procedures," "The facilities are inadequate for implementation," "Physicians will not cooperate with implementation," and "The relevant literature is not compiled in one place" were rated as the main barriers. Conclusions: The results of 10 studies about research utilization in Iran showed that the barriers and facilitators remained constant through time and across different locations. The rank orders of barriers and facilitators were the same approximately. The nurse managers and administrators could utilize the findings of this review to allocate human resources and other sources and promote nursing research utilization in clinical field.
  1,986 261 6
The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Mehdi Foroughi, Zahra Maghsoudi, Gholamreza Askari
January-February 2016, 21(1):100-104
DOI:10.4103/1735-9066.174759  PMID:26985230
Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease insulin resistance through which it might cause fatty liver. Fatty liver increasingly results in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin resistance and fatty liver are particularly closely related. The aim of present study is to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods: This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with NAFLD, who were divided equally into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received vitamin D3 (50,000 IU) and patients in the control group received placebo capsules every week for 10 weeks. Blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostatic model assessment-beta cell (HOMA-B) were checked at baseline and after 10 weeks of the intervention. Adjustment for variables was performed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in increased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration in the intervention group compared to the control group [+68 (12) vs. −1.9 (2.44); P = 0.001]. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a marginally significant decrease in fasting blood glucose [FBS: −12 (4) in the intervention group compared to − 3 (2) in the control group; P = 0.055]. Also, HOMA-IR decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group [−1.75 (0.23) vs. 0.12 (0.41); P = 0.066]. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in decreased HOMA-IR and FBS concentration in patients with NAFLD; however, it did not affect the insulin level and HOMA-B significantly.
  1,867 340 11
An overview of systematic reviews of normal labor and delivery management
Mina Iravani, Mohsen Janghorbani, Elahe Zarean, Masoud Bahrami
May-June 2015, 20(3):293-303
Background: Despite the scientific and medical advances for management of complicated health issues, the current maternity care setting has increased risks for healthy women and their babies. The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of published systematic reviews on the interventions used most commonly for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor. Materials and Methods: The online databases through March 2013, limited to systematic reviews of clinical trials were searched. An updated search was performed in April 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction, and quality of methodology. Results: Twenty-three reviews (16 Cochrane, 7 non-Cochrane), relating to the most common care practices for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor, were included. Evidence does not support routine enemas, routine perineal shaving, continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, routine early amniotomy, and restriction of fluids and food during labor. Evidence supports continuity of midwifery care and support, encouragement to non-supine position, and freedom in movement throughout labor. There is insufficient evidence to support routine administration of intravenous fluids and antispasmodics during labor. More evidence is needed regarding delayed admission until active labor and use of partograph. Conclusions: Evidence-based maternity care emphasizes on the practices that increase safety for mother and baby. If policymakers and healthcare providers wish to promote obstetric care quality successfully, it is important that they implement evidence-based clinical practices in routine midwifery care.
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