Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 857
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-124

A survey of nurses' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in caring for patients with cancer in a selected center of Isfahan, Iran, in 2016


1 Student Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Cancer Prevention Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Adult Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication12-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Abbas Hosseini
Department of Adult Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_228_16

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Hand hygiene is one of the key ways of preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), especially in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in caring for patients with cancer in a selected center in Isfahan, Iran, in 2016. Materials and Methods: The present observational study was conducted on nurses in a cancer center in Isfahan in 2016. The participants were selected via convenience sampling method. Nurses serving at bedsides and willing to participate were entered into the study. Data were collected through the direct observation of nurses during delivering routine care, using the standard checklist for direct observation of the “five moments for hand hygiene” approach. Results: In the present study, 94 nurses were studied at 500 clinical moments. The overall hand hygiene compliance rate was 12.80%. The highest hand hygiene compliance rate was observed in the after body fluid exposure moment (72.70%). In addition, hand hygiene compliance rate in preprocedure indications (before patient contact and before aseptic procedure) and postprocedure indications (after patient contact, after body fluid exposure, and after patient surrounding contact) were 3.40 and 21%, respectively, which had a significant correlation (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The findings indicate that the hand hygiene compliance rate among nurses was low. Further research in this regard is recommended in order to find the causes of low compliance with hand hygiene and design interventions for improvement in hand hygiene compliance rate among nurses.

Keywords: Hand hygiene, Iran, neoplasm, nurse


How to cite this article:
Mostafazadeh-Bora M, Bahrami M, Hosseini A. A survey of nurses' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in caring for patients with cancer in a selected center of Isfahan, Iran, in 2016. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res 2018;23:119-24

How to cite this URL:
Mostafazadeh-Bora M, Bahrami M, Hosseini A. A survey of nurses' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in caring for patients with cancer in a selected center of Isfahan, Iran, in 2016. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 May 30];23:119-24. Available from: http://www.ijnmrjournal.net/text.asp?2018/23/2/119/227107




  Introduction Top


Patients with cancer are at a high risk for infection due to different reasons such as innate and adaptive immune system deficiency, body system disorders, and malnutrition.[1],[2],[3] Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a great challenge and causes mortality, morbidity, extended hospitalization, and increased expenditures.[4] Infection control strategies in patients with cancer can prevent infections. One of the most important strategies of infection control for preventing HCAI is compliance with hand hygiene standards among healthcare providers.[1],[2],[3] Hospital personnel's hands, as factors with high rate of contact to surfaces, are the most important causative factors of the transmission and spread of bacteria in hospitals. Improving personnel's hand hygiene is considered the most important strategy for controlling HCAI.[5] Suitable hand hygiene is the basic factor for HCAI in clinical sittings.[6] High rate of hand hygiene compliance can significantly decrease sepsis, urinary tract infections, and soft tissue infections.[7]

Despite the significance of this issue and development of some guidelines by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, hand hygiene compliance rate among healthcare providers ranges from 5 to 89% with an overall average of 38.70%. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), this rate is very low.[8] This may be due to lack of healthcare personnel, low ratio of nurses to patients, lack of time, negligence, lack of washing supplies, crowded ward, defects in management systems, poor understanding and awareness of infection risk and its impacts, low self-efficacy, cultural barriers, personal perceptions, etc.[2],[9] Moreover, nurses as the main healthcare providers who interact directly with patients have special roles in this serious issue.[10] Review articles indicate that limited studies have been conducted in Iran regarding hand hygiene. Most studies conducted in Iran on hand hygiene have methodological limitations. For example, the results of reviewing 14 articles published between 1996 and 2011 shows that only one study had a sample size of more than 200. Therefore, it is necessary to perform more studies with larger sample sizes. Most studies have been performed in critical units and other units have not been considered. However, due to the methodological limitations of reviewed articles, it is necessary that more researches be conducted on the awareness, acceptance, and performance of the healthcare personnel.[11]

Paying attention to hand hygiene is very important with regard to differences in hand hygiene compliance rate in different studies. Since hand hygiene compliance is a simple, easy, and fundamental action for reducing HCAI, it has a very significant role in enhancing the level of patient safety. Furthermore, identifying performances, improving or increasing abilities, and recognizing guidelines on hand hygiene among nurses can have effective roles in preventing HCAI. This deeper recognition requires the investigation of nurses hand hygiene compliance in settings related to oncology in order that some measures can be taken for improving conditions. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating nurses' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines in caring for patients with cancer in a selected center in Isfahan, Iran, in 2016.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present observational study was conducted on nurses in different wards in a cancer center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In this study, the participants were selected using convenience sampling method. All participants were assured that all their information would remain confidential. Nurses serving at bedsides and willing to participate were entered into the study. The data collection instrument was an observational checklist which investigates hand hygiene based on the “five moments for hand hygiene” approach according to the guidelines presented by the WHO.

Data were obtained between June 21 and October 6, 2016 (a 16-week period) in the morning (100 hours) and evening (100 hours) shifts. The research process and checklist were explained to the head nurse and participants in each ward by observer. Therefore, there was the possibility of changes in nurses' behaviors and reactivity at the presence of the observer(s). Habituation was done in order to control reactivity. Therefore, the observer helped the nurses in clinical activity until habituation to the observer occurred. By consulting a statistician, considering a confidence interval (Z) of 95%, estimated compliance rate (p) of 50% in each moment, d = 0.0438, the number of samples was calculated as 500 hand hygiene opportunities.

In the present study, data were gathered through an observational checklist. This checklist includes demographic data (age, gender, passing infection class, shift, degree, and employment status). Moreover, nurses were observed based on the “five moments for hand hygiene” approach recommended by the WHO (before patient contact, before aseptic procedure, after patient contact, after body fluid exposure, and after patient surrounding contact) and the checklists were completed. Nurses should adhere to recommended hand hygiene guidelines including using alcohol-based hand rub and hand washing in these moments. The constructed moments were considered as samples. The validity and reliability of this checklist has been approved by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education and it was used in the studies of Ataei et al. and Kavakebi et al.[12],[13] The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistical software (SPSS, version 18, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test at p < 0.05.

Ethical considerations

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the Ethical code IR.MUI.REC.1395.3.233. Hospital administrators and ward managers of the selected hospital approved the study, and after confirmation of the study, sampling began. All nurses were aware of the study, and were assured that the data would be recorded anonymously.


  Results Top


In the present study, 94 nurses were observed in 500 hand hygiene opportunities. The high number of observations was possible due to various moments created by nurses. The duration of observation in each hand hygiene opportunities was 20 ± 10 min. The total observation time was 200 h. The data related to frequency distribution of these hand hygiene opportunities are presented in [Table 1] in terms of some characteristics and indications. The results indicated that the highest frequencies were related to woman (90.80%), BSc degree (91.20%), informal employment (76.40%), and passing infection control class (79.20%).
Table 1: Frequency distribution of hand hygiene opportunities in terms of some characteristics and indications

Click here to view


The data related to the way of performing hand hygiene and some other characteristics are presented in [Table 2]. This table shows that the rate of noncompliance with hand hygiene was very high. In addition, the rate of hand washing was higher than alcohol-based hand rub use. The overall hand hygiene compliance was 12.80%. Moreover, the rate of using gloves was high in all the investigated variables.
Table 2: Hand hygiene status in observed opportunities in terms of some characteristics and indications

Click here to view


The data related to the relationship of hand hygiene compliance with other characteristics and demographic characteristics of nurses and healthcare indications are presented in [Table 3]. This table illustrates that there was a significant correlation between hand hygiene compliance in moments of preprocedure indication (before patient contact and before aseptic procedure) and postprocedure indications (after patient contact, after body fluid exposure, and after patient surrounding contact) (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the employment status and compliance with hand hygiene (p = 0.01).
Table 3: Relationship of hand hygiene compliance with some characteristics and demographic characteristics of nurses and healthcare indications

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The findings of the present study indicate that overall compliance rate was 12.80%. In the study of Nova et al. in Spain, this rate was 22%.[14] In the study by Ataei et al. in 2013, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene was 8.40%, which was less than the present study.[12] In their study, all healthcare workers were observed, whereas in the present study, only nurses were observed. In the study of Korniewicz and El-Masri [15] in the USA, hand hygiene compliance in an oncology hospital was 34.30%, which was higher than the present study. The age and experience of the participants were higher in their study compared to the current study. Moreover, in the study of Souza et al.[16] in Brazil, hand hygiene compliance in intensive care unit (ICU) was 47.50%, which was higher than the present study. The difference between hand hygiene compliances could be caused by difference in the studied ward and health system. In the study of Farbakhsh et al.,[17] hand hygiene compliance was very poor in a hematology unit. In the study of Farbakhsh et al. which was conducted on fewer participants than the present study, other healthcare providers such as physicians and students were observed. In another study conducted in Shiraz, Iran, in 2015, in spite of the high degree of awareness and attitudes of the oncology staff toward hand hygiene, 50.70% of them reported poor performance in this regard in their self-report performances.[18] However, there are some studies indicating that hand hygiene compliance was higher than 50%. This rate is much higher than the rate obtained in the present study.[19],[20],[21],[22] Nevertheless, other factors such as unawareness, lack of time, skin irritation caused by disinfectants, heavy workload, lack of organizational supports, and different management systems can be effective on compliance with hand hygiene.[23],[24] For the improvement of hand hygiene, multimodel programs are needed. Multimodel programs of the WHO include changes in the system, training the staff, evaluation, feedback, hand hygiene performance reminder, and institutionalization of safety culture. The combination of the “five moments for hand hygiene,” multimodel programs of the WHO, and paying attention to strategies such as extensive education programs, promotion of hand hygiene guidelines, and frequent assessment can promote safety culture and hand hygiene.[25]

Furthermore, the present study showed that the rate of using gloves in clinical settings was 49.40%. In other studies, the rate of using gloves was high.[14],[26],[27] Although gloves cannot be an alternative for hand hygiene, the rate of their use in clinical settings is very high, which can be a factor for noncompliance with hand hygiene.[21],[28],[29] One of the observed problems in using gloves in the present study was not changing gloves for clinical care. Appropriate use of gloves can significantly prevent infections during clinical care.[21],[30] The high rate of using gloves may be due to the ease of using them, not being time-consuming, inappropriate sense of safety with the use of gloves, or wrong understanding of replacement of gloves with hand hygiene.[16],[31],[32] By omitting the use of gloves, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene can be increased. In this regard, Cusini et al. conducted a study on the improvement of compliance with hand hygiene by forced removal of gloves in Bern during 2009 to 2012. Their findings indicated that after changes were made in the policies of the hospital for removing gloves, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene significantly increased.[28] Although suitable use of gloves is a strategy for preventing microorganisms,[33] the limitation of gloves use seems more logical.[26]

Moreover, findings of the study showed that the rate of compliance with hand hygiene in preprocedure indication (before patient contact and before aseptic procedure) was significantly lower than postprocedure indications (after patient contact, after body fluid exposure, and after patient surrounding contact). These findings are consistent with the results of other studies.[14],[16],[27],[34] In a self-report study conducted in Turkey, the degree of compliance before patient contact was 65–93% and after patient contact was 96–100%.[35] Preprocedure indication in hand hygiene for reducing the risk of transmission of infection to patients and postprocedure indication in hand hygiene for protecting healthcare providers and other patients are very important. The internal concern and belief of individuals about the significance of postprocedure indication and low significance of preprocedure indication can be among the causes of the higher nurses' compliance with postprocedure indication.[15],[36]

Additionally, the highest rate of hand hygiene compliance was observed in the “after body fluid exposure” moment (72.70%). In other studies, the highest rate of compliance with hand hygiene was also in this moment.[12],[16],[22],[37] Exposure to conditions with high risk of infection and the nurses' mental frameworks may result in their high compliance with hand hygiene after exposure to patients' body fluids.[15],[27],[38],[39] Another interesting finding of the study was the noncompliance (100%) with hand hygiene in the “after patient surrounding contact” moment. Different studies have indicated that the rate of compliance in this clinical setting was low.[14],[12],[37] In a study conducted in Brazil in 2013, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene in this moment was 88%. This rate is much higher than the rate obtained in the present study.[22] In another study conducted in Brazil, the rate of compliance in this moment was 49.10%.[16] These studies indicated that the degree of hand hygiene compliance depends on the type of care. Moreover, the cleanness of the surrounding environment can reduce the rate of hand hygiene in the personnel.[40] As a consequence, clean surroundings can result in higher sense of safety in the personnel and low hand hygiene compliance. Healthcare providers should consider that even in low-risk situations, transmission of bacteria can occur. Therefore, educational programs can help to improve hand hygiene compliance in this moment.[13],[41]

Hand hygiene is a key component in the prevention of HCAI. Therefore, healthcare providers must understand the significance of hand hygiene in the institutionalization of this important issue and improvement of patient safety. The present study was performed with a small sample size and in a limited geographical area during a 16-week period. Although nurses constitute a large part of those healthcare providers, other healthcare providers such as physicians and medical and nursery students are involved in caring for patients. Moreover, there was the possibility of changes in nurses' behaviors at the presence of the observer (s). Thus, the observer explained the process of the project for the head nurse and participated in clinical activities along with nurses in order to find compatibility and minimize errors. In evaluating hand hygiene, there are also other methods such as measuring the degree of solutions used for hand hygiene (soap and alcoholic ingredients), but direct observation is a standard method recommended by the WHO. In addition, samples were collected in the morning and evening shifts and the collection of samples in the night shift was impossible due to lack of permission to enter the hospital by the administrator.


  Conclusion Top


In conclusion, hand hygiene compliance rate among nurses was low. Therefore, the determination of the reasons for low compliance in settings with high potentiality of infection, revision of the infection control system with regard to the low hand hygiene compliance rate, frequent trainings for recalling the significance of hand hygiene, training-incentive programs, and frequent assessments are recommended.

Acknowledgements

This article was derived from a Master Thesis with project number 395233, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran. We appreciate Clinical Research Development Center of cancer hospital in Isfahan. Also, we appreciate all the nurses who participated in our study and we are grateful to the authorities of cancer center of Isfahan.

Financial support and sponsorship

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Conflicts of interest

Nothing to declare.



 
  References Top

1.
Zembower TR. Epidemiology of infections in cancer patients. Infectious Complications in Cancer Patients: Springer; 2014. p. 43-89.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Allegranzi B, Pittet D. Role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. J Hosp Infect 2009;73:305-15.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sax H, Allegranzi B, Chraïti MN, Boyce J, Larson E, Pittet D. The World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method. Am J Infect Control 2009;37:827-34.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Andersson AE, Bergh I, Karlsson J, Nilsson K. Patients' experiences of acquiring a deep surgical site infection: An interview study. Am J Infect Control 2010;38:711-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jalalpoor S, Kasra Kermanshahi R, Noohi AS, Zarkesh Esfahani H. Role and important staff hands and low and high contact hospital surfaces to produce and controlling nosocomial infections. Iran J Med Microbiol 2012;5:14-22.[in persian]  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Marimuthu K, Pittet D, Harbarth S. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2014;3:34.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Chen YC, Sheng WH, Wang JT, Chang SC, Lin HC, Tien KL, et al. Effectiveness and limitations of hand hygiene promotion on decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PLoS One 2011;6:e27163.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Tejada CJ, Bearman G. Hand hygiene compliance monitoring: The state of the art. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2015;17:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Borg MA, Benbachir M, Cookson BD, Redjeb SB, Elnasser Z, Rasslan O, et al. Health care worker perceptions of hand hygiene practices and obstacles in a developing region. Am J Infect Control 2009;37:855-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Smith J, Lokhorst D. Infection control: Can nurses improve hand hygiene practice. J Undergraduate Nurs Scholarsh 2009;11:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Najafi Ghezeljeh T, Abbas Nejhad Z, Rafii F. A literature review of hand hygiene in Iran. Iran Journal of Nursing 2013;25:1-13. [in persian]  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ataei B, Zahraei S, Pezeshki Z, Babak A, Nokhodian Z, Mobasherizadeh S, et al. Baseline evaluation of hand hygiene compliance in three major hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. J Hosp Infect 2013;85:69-72.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kavakebi N, Aliabedi P, Pazani KH, Aslnejhad-Moghadammi N, Tahmasebi Z, Abbasaian P, et al. Hand hygiene compliance among personal of Taleghani hospital in Tabriz. Depietion of Health 2016;7:46-53. [in persian]  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Novoa AM, Pi-Sunyer T, Sala M, Molins E, Castells X. Evaluation of hand hygiene adherence in a tertiary hospital. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:676-83.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Korniewicz DM, El-Masri M. Exploring the factors associated with hand hygiene compliance of nurses during routine clinical practice. Appl Nurs Res 2010;23:86-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Souza LM, Ramos MF, Becker ES, Meirelles LC, Monteiro SA. Adherence to the five moments for hand hygiene among intensive care professionals. Rev Gaúcha Enferm 2015;36:21-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Farbakhsh F, Shafeeizadeh T, Zahraei M, Pezeshki P, Hodaei P, Farnosh F, et al. Acceptance Rate of Hand Hygiene in Health Worker. Iran J Infect Dis Trop Med 2012;61:9-13.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Hosseinialhashemi M, Kermani FS, Palenik CJ, Pourasghari H, Askarian M. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care personnel concerning hand hygiene in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Hospitals, 2013–2014. Am J Infect Control 2015;43:1009-11.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Magnus TP, Marra AR, Camargo TZS, da Silva Victor E, da Costa LSS, Cardoso VJ, et al. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: A comparative study of methodologies. Int J Infect Dis 2015;33:205-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Graf K, Ott E, Wolny M, Tramp N, Vonberg R-P, Haverich A, et al. Hand hygiene compliance in transplant and other special patient groups: An observational study. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:503-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Chau JPC, Thompson DR, Twinn S, Lee DT, Pang SW. An evaluation of hospital hand hygiene practice and glove use in Hong Kong. J Clin Nurs 2011;20:1319-28.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
da Costa LSS, Neves VM, Marra AR, Camargo TZS, dos Santos Cardoso MF, da Silva Victor E, et al. Measuring hand hygiene compliance in a hematology-oncology unit: A comparative study of methodologies. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:997-1000.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Gluyas H, Morrison P. Patient safety: An essential guide, Palgrave Macmillan 2013.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
ddo Prado MF, Oliveira AC, do Nascimento TM, de Melo WA, do Prado DB. Strategy to promote hand hygiene in intensive care unit. Ciência Cuidado e Saúde 2012;11(3):557-64.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
World Health Orgnization. A guide to the implementation of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. 2009. p. 6-10.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Eveillard M, Joly-Guillou ML, Brunel P. Correlation between glove use practices and compliance with hand hygiene in a multicenter study with elderly patients. Am J Infect Control 2012;40:387-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Ghorbani A, Sadeghi L, Shahrokhi A, Mohammadpour A, Addo M, Khodadadi E. Hand hygiene compliance before and after wearing gloves among intensive care unit nurses in Iran. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:e279-81.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Cusini A, Nydegger D, Kaspar T, Schweiger A, Kuhn R, Marschall J. Improved hand hygiene compliance after eliminating mandatory glove use from contact precautions—Is less more? Am J Infect Control 2015;43:922-7.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Katherason SG, Naing L, Jaalam K, Mohamad NA, Bhojwani K, Harussani ND, et al. Hand decontamination practices and the appropriate use of gloves in two adult intensive care units in Malaysia. J Infect Dev Ctries 2009;4:118-23.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
The Joint Commission. Measuring hand hygiene adherence: Overcoming the challenges. Hand Hygiene Monograph 2009;2009:75-85.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Jang TH, Wu S, Kirzner D, Moore C, Youssef G, Tong A, et al. Focus group study of hand hygiene practice among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:144-50.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Albughbish M, Neisi A, Borvayeh H. Hand Hygine Compliance among ICU health worker in Golestan hospital in 2013. Sci Med J Ahwaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci 2016;15:355-62.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Tomic V, Sorli PS, Trinkaus D, Sorli J, Widmer AF, Trampuz A. Comprehensive strategy to prevent nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a highly endemic setting. Arch Int Med 2004;164:2038-43.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Garus-Pakowska A, Sobala W, Szatko F. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel after the patient contact. Part II. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2013;26:257-64.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Findik UY, Otkun MT, Erkan T, Sut N. Evaluation of handwashing behaviors and analysis of hand flora of intensive care unit nurses. Asian Nurs Res 2011;5:99-107.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Guedes M, Miranda FM, Maziero EC, Cauduro FL, de Almeida Cruz ED. Nursing professional's' compliance with hand washing: an analysis according to the health belief model. Cogitare Enfermagem 2012;17(2).  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Mahfouz AA, El Gamal MN, Al-Azraqi TA. Hand hygiene non-compliance among intensive care unit health care workers in Aseer Central Hospital, South-western Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis 2013;17:e729-32.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Hakko E, Rasa K, Karaman ID, Enunlu T, Cakmakci M. Low rate of compliance with hand hygiene before glove use. Am J Infect Control 2011;39:82-3.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Eveillard M, Guilloteau V, Kempf M, Lefrancq B, Pradelle M-T, Raymond F, et al. Impact of improving glove usage on the hand hygiene compliance. Am J Infect Control 2011;39:608-10.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
King M, Noakes C, Sleigh P, Bale S, Waters L. Relationship between healthcare worker surface contacts, care type and hand hygiene: an observational study in a single-bed hospital ward. J Hosp Infect. 2016;94(1):48-51.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
FitzGerald G, Moore G, Wilson A. Hand hygiene after touching a patient's surroundings: The opportunities most commonly missed. J Hosp Infect 2013;84:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 41
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed895    
    Printed19    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded100    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal